Sunday, February 15, 2015

Keep Cats Contained- End Release of Cats

 Keep them safe.  End Release of
 cats to the wild. 

•Protect Humans •Protect Wildlife
•Protect our Pets  •Protect Cats 


Keep Cats Safely Contained--- >> 

Releasing Cats  Does Not Work
"How can veterinarians, with a science education, neglect a very basic tenet of population biology. A population increases with an increased carrying capacity (feeding unneutered feral cats increases populations). A population will not be reduced unless you neuter 75% ANNUALLY or remove 50% ANNUALLY.

TNR programs do not reach more than 10% therefore they do NOTHING to reduce a population. That's nothing....not 'every little bit helps', NOTHING. The intact 90% make up for any reductions achieved by neutering 10%. So, please don't believe TNR reduces populations. TNR makes people feel better about what they really want to do.... feed feral cats outside."
(Wildlife Biologist)




  


Cat colonies produce hyper-predation.... not enough food for native species forcing 
coyotes and other predators into cities.








"Other serious problems with TNR: 
Food put outside for feral cats attracts
Coyote, raccoon, skunk, cougar and bears
to urban neighborhoods." 


(US Department of the Interior; US Fish and Wildlife)






...and then the cougar or black bear pay the price as do tax-payers when Game & Fish get tasked with finding and removing the animals.







    US Centers for Disease Control report 2 out the 5 most prevalent diseases spread to humans are caused by feral cats, These are toxoplasmosis and toxocariosis and both are spread through fecal material in our public and private sandboxes, gardens, parks, transmitted to our indoor pets and to our families.  Both are very bad.
DANGERS TO HUMANS

Diseases carried by animals that people can catch are called zoonotic diseases. Some of these types of infections can be passed from pet cats to the people who own them. Fortunately, avoiding cat-borne disease is fairly easy when simple precautions are taken.
Public Playgrounds, children's sandboxes, gardens are all vectors

Sarcosporidios:
Sarcosporidiosi in striated muscle tissue










Sarcosporidiosis in a pig's heart





























Types

While many of the diseases cats have and carry cannot infect people, some types do cross the species barrier. A scratch or bite even by a cat that shows no symptoms can transmit the bacteria-caused infection cat scratch disease (Bartonella) to humans. Another bacterial infection people can get from their cats is salmonella. Toxoplasmosis, sarcosporidiosis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are all protozoans that can infect both cats and humans and may be passed from one to the other. Fungal infections such as ringworm and intestinal parasites like roundworm or hookworm may also be passed from cats to people. A bite from an infected cat easily transmits the virus rabies.

Bartonella:
Bartonella caused by a cat scratch under the infant's arm

 
 
















Where people do not feed feral cats, feral learn to follow raccoons to garbage cans -eat what the raccoons dumps from garbage cans.  Feral cats can transmit ringworm from this contact.

Ringworm

cryptosporidiosis:
Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidiosis (krip-to-spo-rid-e-O-sis), often called "crypto," is a disease caused by a one-celled parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, also known as "crypto." Crypto, which cannot be seen without a very powerful microscope, is so small that over 10,000 of them would fit on the period at the end of this sentence.

What Are the Symptoms of Crypto?

Although sometimes persons infected with crypto do not get sick, when they do get sick they can have watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, an upset stomach, or a slight fever. In some cases, persons infected with crypto can have severe diarrhea and lose weight. The first symptoms of crypto may appear 2 to 10 days after a person becomes infected.  Crypto can be fatal in immuno-compromised individuals.
 

Susceptibility

Some people are more susceptible to catching diseases from cats than others. People with compromised immune systems from existing diseases or disorders such as AIDS or cancer may catch diseases from cats more easily. Children under five are also more susceptible to these diseases, because their immune systems are not yet fully developed.

Prevention

Preventing cat-borne diseases in humans is fairly easy. According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, washing hands after touching or cleaning up cat feces can help prevent some diseases. Cat owners should also avoid oral contact with the cat, such as kissing the cat or allowing the cat to lick a person's face. Avoiding cat scratches or bites and washing the area thoroughly if a scratch or bite should occur may prevent infection. Regular vaccinations of the cat are also important in preventing disease in both pet and owner.




 What is toxocariosis?


Toxocariasis is an infection transmitted from animals to humans (zoonosis) caused by the parasitic roundworms commonly found in the intestine of dogs (Toxocara canis) and cats (T. cati).

Toxocariosis worms

Who is at risk for toxocariasis?

Anyone can become infected with Toxocara. Young children and owners of dogs or cats have a higher chance of becoming infected. Approximately 13.9% of the U.S. population has antibodies to Toxocara. This suggests that tens of millions of Americans may have been exposed to the Toxocara parasite.

How can I get toxocariasis? 

Cats that are infected with Toxocara can shed Toxocara eggs in their feces. You or your children can become infected by accidentally swallowing dirt that has been contaminated with dog or cat feces that contain infectious Toxocara eggs. Although it is rare, people can also become infected from eating undercooked meat containing Toxocara larvae.

What are the clinical manifestations of toxocariasis?

Many people who are infected with Toxocara do not have symptoms and do not ever get sick. Some people may get sick from the infection, and may develop:
Toxocariosis worms
  • Ocular toxocariasis: Ocular toxocariasis occurs when Toxocara larvae migrate to the eye. Symptoms and signs of ocular toxocariasis include vision loss, eye inflammation or damage to the retina. Typically, only one eye is affected.
  •  

  • Visceral toxocariasis: 
  • Visceral toxocariasis occurs when Toxocara larvae migrate to various body organs, such as the liver or central nervous system. Symptoms of visceral toxocariasis include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, abdominal pain. 

How serious is infection with Toxocara?

In most cases, Toxocara infections are not serious, and many people, especially adults infected by a small number of larvae (immature worms), may not notice any symptoms. The most severe cases are rare, but are more likely to occur in young children, who often play in dirt, or eat dirt (pica) contaminated by dog or cat feces.


 
Ocular toxocariasis: According to the American Center for Disease Control, Ocular Toxocariasis occurs Toxocara larvae migrate to the eye. Symptoms and signs of ocular toxocariasis include vision loss, eye inflammation or damage to the retina. Typically, only one eye is affected.


How is toxocariasis spread?
A common Toxocara parasite of concern to humans is T. canis, which kittens usually contract from the mother before birth or from her milk. The larvae mature rapidly in the kitten's intestine; when the cat is 3 or 4 weeks old, they begin to produce large numbers of eggs that contaminate the environment through the animal's feces. Over a 2 to 4 week time period, infective larvae develop in the eggs. Toxocariasis is not spread by person-to-person contact like a cold or the flu.

What should I do if I think I have toxocariasis?

See your health care provider to discuss the possibility of infection and, if necessary, to be examined. Your provider may take a sample of your blood for testing.

What is the treatment for toxocariasis?

Visceral toxocariasis is treated with anti-parasitic drugs. Treatment of ocular toxocariasis is more difficult and usually consists of measures to prevent progressive damage to the eye.

How do I prevent toxocariasis?

  • Teach children that it is dangerous to eat dirt or soil.
  •  Do not allow children to play in areas that are soiled with pet or other animal feces.
  •  Take your pets to the veterinarian to prevent infection with Toxocara. Your veterinarian can recommend a testing and treatment plan for deworming.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water after playing with your pets or other animals, after outdoor activities, and before handling food.
  • Teach children the importance of washing hands to prevent infection.
  • Clean your pet's living area at least once a week. Feces should be either buried or bagged and disposed of in the trash. Wash your hands after handling pet waste.
Toxoplasmosis

Cutaneous Toxoplasmosis


FETAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

TOXOPLASMOSIS which can result in a pregnant mother's death or spontaneous abortion/birth defects, such as paranoid schizophrenia, autism, and can be fatal in immuno-compromised humans. 











If you are pregnant do NOT handle cat feces, change litter box, garden in areas where cats may have been.  



Teach children that it is dangerous to eat dirt or soil.

  • Take your pets to the veterinarian to test for toxoplasmosis. Your veterinarian can recommend a testing and treatment plan.

    • Wash your hands with soap and water after playing with your pets or other animals, after outdoor activities, and before handling food.
    • Teach children the importance of washing hands to prevent infection.
    • Clean your pet's living area at least once a week. Feces should be bagged and disposed of in the trash. Wash your hands after handling pet waste.
    Tularemia
    Tularemia 





















    BUBONIC PLAGUE
    The parasitic genus Yersinia pestis causes the bacterial disease referred to as plague. This condition occurs worldwide. In the United States, it is predominantly found in the southwest between the months of May and October. Carriers of this disease include rats, squirrels and mice; the disease is typically transmitted when a rodent either bites, or is bitten by a cat.

    The infection travels rapidly to the lymph nodes, where white blood cells are produced. The resulting reaction from the lymph nodes is a rapid multiplication of white cells, abnormal fluid build up with swelling, and possible skin breakage. Cats infected with plague will experience fever, inflammation, and excessive pain due to the lymph nodes being chronically swollen.

    Outdoor cats are most affected, with males predominating due to their tendency to roam. However, there are no gender or breed boundaries for susceptibility to the plague.

    Although it is quite rare, plague is transmittable to humans, and care should be taken to avoid fleas and body fluids from an animal that is suspected of being infected with the Yersinia bacterium.

    Bubonic Plague
    Dogs may also be infected with plague.

    Symptoms and Types


    There are three forms of plague: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicemic plague. Symptoms associated with bubonic plague in cats will include painfully swollen lymph nodes, fever, inflammation, depression, vomiting, dehydration, diarrhea, enlarged tonsils, and anorexia. The head and neck area will swell considerably, and should the cat survive, its lymph nodes may abscess and then rupture and drain. Other symptoms include discharge from the eyes, mouth ulcers, and a loss of appetite, with visible weight loss being evident. Coma may follow.

    The normal incubation period for bubonic plague is between two and seven days after the cat has been bitten. In the case of pneumonic plague, a lung infection will occur; and with septicemic plague, which is rare in cats, the same symptoms as bubonic plague will appear, along with systemic infection of the blood.

    Causes

     The Yersinia bacterium is transmitted to cats when an infected flea bites them, or when they ingest an infected rodent. It is more common for a cat to become infected after eating a rodent than it is for the cat to acquire this disease through a fleabite.


    Another possible cause for exposure could come from the animal’s environment. If the home is heavily infested with fleas, or if the homeowner resides near a wildlife habitat, where the animal is exposed to rodents, this could put the animal at a higher risk of contracting the plague. Garbage, woodpiles,
    and food sources can also be outlets.







    DANGER TO NATIVE SPECIES
    New Zealand Jewelled Gecko








    Stomach Contents



    It is disastrous to native wildlife, private and public property, playgrounds, and it is a vector for some very lethal disease transmissions to humans, to native wild cat populations and even extends to otters and porpoises--yes, otters and porpoises.   







    >>>>>>>>> 33 species have been rendered extinct by free-roaming and feral cats.















    RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RESOURCE MANAGERS REGARDING FERAL CATS
    A 5 State Review from: New York, New Jersey, Florida, California and Hawaii:

    Federal and state wildlife biologists provide the first line of defense in protecting rare birds from predators, including cats. However, their ability to protect rare birds is often hampered by inadequate funding and unwillingness by some staff to deal with potentially controversial issues such as predator control. The following recommendations may be helpful to resource managers.

    •Identify predator threats at specific sites, including the use of nighttime monitoring.

    •Increase efforts to trap and remove predators or undertake additional predator management where
    warranted.

    •Increase predator removal measures where closures and/or electric fence are not effective or feasible.

    •Conduct public outreach efforts to reduce detrimental human activities near nesting birds, including the distribution of informational brochures, such as ABC’s “Keeping Cats Indoors Isn’t Just For The Birds,” placement of interpretive signs at nesting sites, informal on-site contact with the public, formal group presentations, and staffing of informational booths at local events and festivals.

    •Coordinate management efforts, such as permanent  feline predator removal, with municipalities and other landowners.

    •Encourage municipalities to adopt ordinances or other measures to help reduce predator activity,
    including bans on feeding of domestic or wild animals, and a prohibition of TNR programs.

    •If managed cat colonies are threatening local wildlife populations, work with cat advocates to develop a plan and a timetable for permanent removal of those cats.

    •Conduct research on developing more effective predator control measures.

    •Increase state and federal funding requests for predator management.



    DANGER TO CATS 
    •Other cats
    •Deadly plants
    •Mean spirited people 
    •Birds of Prey
    •Coyote
    •Automobiles
    •Disease transmission at feeding stations
    -rabies, feline leukemia, tularemia, 
    -bubonic plague, calicivirus, rhino, -toxoplasmosis, toxocariosis and many other.
    •Large reptiles, alligators, snakes.
    •Warm/Cold weather injuries


    Timm's Traps

    Feral cats who have been trapped in many warm areas where fleas exist are usually found to have a large number of fleas, making them anemic. Both the fleas, and the food source, if limited to garbage and rodents, cause the cats to have intestinal microorganisms (such as coccidia or giardia) and other parasites (commonly known as roundworms, tapeworms, and hookworms), which lead to diarrhea and subsequent dehydration. They also can have ear mites, ringworm, and upper respiratory infections.

    Others are wounded in mating-fights and die from the infected wounds. Still others eventually contract feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia due to the constant transmission of blood and bodily fluids via fighting and sexual activity.

    While all of these illnesses are quite treatable, human intervention is necessary to prevent them from becoming fatal.  Municipal monies are often tapped to sustain these programs.

    California's Department of Game and Fish:

    "Finding the Best Solution:

    The most important step to solving the feral cat problem is education. People need to understand that, although it seems the most directly helpful, feeding stray or feral cats--like feeding city pigeons--perpetuates a problem. Where there is a food source, there will be feral cats and the suffering and discomfort that accompanies them. People need to be taught to use humane traps and to know that the most helpful thing they can do is catch feral cats, if they can, and take them to a shelter to be adopted, if possible, or euthanized. 

    Finally, the connection between spaying and neutering and the feral cat problem needs to be emphatically stressed. 

    Many will argue that life for the cats, no matter how brief, traumatic, or difficult, is preferable to humane death. To this, Ellen Kowalski comments: "Those who believe euthanasia is cruel should consider that the only difference between euthanasia and abandonment [what she calls the neuter-and-release method] is that euthanasia is merciful and quick, and abandonment is slow and painful. The end result is the same--death." 

    Cats do not belong on the fringe. They belong inside the circle of humans, who have domesticated them. Human companionship and care are as essential to them as food and water. It may be too late for the many feral cats who already lead lives masquerading as wild animals. But it is the responsibility of all involved in community animal protection to help ensure that no others have to endure this tragic life on the outskirts" 




    Birds of Prey






     
    Snakes

    5 comments:

    1. This whole article is bullcrap!!!

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. No it's not. It's a serious issue, especially in Australia.

        Delete
      2. Excellent, well written and scientifically accurate article. Ted, if you disagree with peer-reviewed scientific data from the CDC, Smithsonian, Institute, ABC, Audobon Association and Dept of Fish and Wildlife, then perhaps you can share not only your credentials as a scientist or biologist as well as any peer-reviewed published data to refute any of these points.

        Delete
    2. This is an excellent resource for someone that wants to see what an article looks like when it is very well written, but contains as much false information as there is true.

      ReplyDelete
    3. This is an excellent resource for someone that wants to see what an article looks like when it is very well written, but contains as much false information as there is true.

      ReplyDelete